Monthly newsletter of the Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus
Visits of the General Council’s members (April/May)
Fr. Teresino: 24 April-15 May, visit to the province of Congo.
Fr. Odelir: 5-22 May, visit to the province of BNE; 24-29 May, spiritual exercises in BS.
Fr. Tesfamariam: 1-15 May, visit to the province of Italy.
Br. Martinuzzo: 1-4 May, Brothers’ meeting in Pesaro; 5-28 May, visit to the province of BNE.
During the Consulta of April, the General Council discussed a proposal and a letter, dated 4 March, 2008, signed by all the provincials of Europe. After deep discernment and further dialogue, the General Council decided to reopen the Santarém (Portugal) Novitiate as from October 2008, the solemnity of St. Daniel Comboni. On the same day the Venegono (Italy) Novitiate will be canonically closed. Santarém will, therefore, become the European Novitiate. The new community will include both the novices beginning their second year as well as those starting their novitiate.
The GC also appointed Fr. Fausto Beretta as novice master and Fr. Ivo Martins do Vale as his assistant, as from 1 September 2008.
Appointments made during the April 2008 Consulta
Fr. Raphael Wokorach P’Mony: superior of the Nairobi Scholasticate, Kenya, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. Giuseppe Giannini: formator of the Nairobi Scholasticate, Kenya, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. Simoni Giuseppe: assistant novice master of Cotonou Novitiate, Benin, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. Fausto Beretta: novice master of Santarém Novitiate, Portugal, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. Ivo Martins do Vale: assistant novice master of Santarém Novitiate, Portugal, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. John Peter Alenyo: novice master of Namugongo Novitiate, Uganda, as from 1 July 2008.
Fr. Antonio Guarino: assistant novice master at Namugongo Novitiate, Uganda, as from 10 October 2008.
Fr. Estifanos Helafu Woldeghiorghis: formator and person in charge of the Asmara house of formation for the newly professed of Eritrea Delegation, as from 1 July 2008.
General Secretariats: information
Fr. Pezzi Trebeschi Gian Paolo, in charge of Comboni Press, will also run the website: www.Comboni.org. He will also collaborate with Fr. Rosich Vargas Enrique Javier, Secretary General for Evangelization, in the field of JPIC.
Fr. García Castillo Jorge Oscar, Secretary General for Mission Promotion, is to accompany the Comboni Lay Missionaries at the Institute level.
Holy Redeemer Guild
May 01 – 07 ET 08 – 15 ER 16 – 31 IT
June 01 – 15 KE 16 – 30 KH
Fr. Aguilar Guzmán David Octavio (M), Guadalajara (M) 05.04.2008
May - That God, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary, the missionary woman, may keep us faithful to his Gospel and to our vocation for the mission. Let us pray.
June - That the Heart of the Missionary Christ may bless the people we serve with the gift of peace, unity and perseverance in their faith. Let us pray.
Meeting of the European coordinators for JPIC
From 9 to 11 April 2008 in Bamberg, representatives of the European provinces attended a meeting on evangelisation, especially in the field of Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation (JPIC). In their reports they highlighted the great commitment and the many activities that are being carried out in the various provinces.
Among the 14 topics discussed, in a fraternal climate and by a speedy procedure, it is worthwhile to point out some of the proposals: a formation course, open to other missionary Institutes, during Spring of next year for the confreres responsible for JPIC in Europe; a European meeting of confreres who work among the immigrants; the re-launching of our collaboration with VIVAT and AEFJN; a special commitment in view of the World Social Forum that will be held in Belém, Brazil, next January.
Also discussed were the contribution of those responsible for JPIC to the Web page; the important commitment of our magazines in this field; the need to get the Lay Comboni Missionaries, returning from the mission, more involved in these activities.
To improve coordination, it became apparent the need for someone to be the coordinator of the group who could also be the reference and liaison person with the General Direction. Fr. Fernando Zolli was chosen for this office.
The atmosphere created allowed us to share, in a rather deep way, about the basis of our work in JPIC. We may summarise it in two points: The work of JPIC is “doing mission”, so that it requires a lifestyle that makes it “mission”; secondly, as people “consecrated for mission”, we should take up this challenge by adopting a personal and community lifestyle.
Fr. Claudio Zendron informs those intending to participate in “COMLA 8” that this will be held in Quito from 12 to 17 August 2008. It will be followed, from 18 to 20 of the same month, by the Mission Promotion Meeting. He kindly requests all participants (GA, secretariats, confreres from Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Central America, Brazil and African countries) to forward the first page and number of their passports, by e-mail or fax, to the Provincial House in Quito (fax: 00-593-2-443-422). Many thanks.
Celebrations at Falzè – 25th anniversary of the death of the Servant of God, Fr. Bernardo Sartori
On the evening of 3 April, in the parish church of Trevignano, Treviso diocese, the 25th anniversary of the death of Fr. Bernardo Sartori (1897-1983), the community of his native parish and the whole diocese commemorated the Servant of God and our confrere, a great mission promoter and one who spent fifty years as an enthusiastic evangelizer in the diocese of Arua, Uganda. The commemoration took the form of a solemn Eucharistic celebration presided by the Bishop of Treviso, Mgr. Andrea Bruno Mazzocato.
The celebration was attended by the people of the place who filled the church to capacity for the occasion (many people remained outside and followed the service on closed circuit television screens) as well as the whole diocesan seminary comprising about a hundred seminarians with the rector, professors and formators. The Vicar General, the Vicar Forane, numerous diocesan priests and Don Franco Marton, director of the diocesan missionary centre, were also present. One delegation of Comboni Missionaries came from Cordenons and another from the Mother House in Verona, led by Fr. Romeo Ballan, the superior.
Fr. Aurelio Boscaini presented the figure of Fr. Bernardo during his homily, taking as his starting point what was published in the April issue of the Comboni monthly magazine Nigrizia. The third of April 1983 was also a special day: Easter Sunday. It was on the morning of that day that Fr. Bernardo was found dead, with his petrol lamp still burning, prostrate before the tabernacle in the church of Ombaci.
Fr. Boscaini underlined Fr. Bernardo’s strong sense of belonging to his parish community which he wanted to be (and so it still remains) ‘missionary’, as well as to his diocese. Fr. Bernardo joined the novitiate at Venegono, having left the diocesan seminary. He wrote: “I went to say goodbye to my holy bishop, Mgr. Andrea Giacinto Longhin. He embraced me, blessed me, accompanied me to the bottom of the stairs and said: ‘You do not yet know how great a commitment and how difficult the religious life is. If you cannot continue, come back here where your diocese needs you and your bishop will receive you with open arms.’ Both of us were moved to tears.” That bishop made sure he was the one to ordain him priest (1923), in order “to make a modest contribution to the Kingdom of Christ among the faithful”, as he wrote to Fr. Bernardo. The news bulletins tell us that Mgr. Longhin, a religious Capuchin with a profound spirituality, sound doctrine and strong social commitment, was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 20 October 2002, together with Daudi Okelo and Jildo Irwa, the two martyr catechists of Paimol, Uganda.
As he touched on many details of his life, Fr. Boscaini illustrated the missionary ardour, the austere life and the devotion to Our Lady of Fr. Bernardo. Also participating was Fr. Zeno Picotti who gave his own moving testimony regarding Fr. Bernardo, whose regional superior he was in Uganda as well as one of his penitents.
As the Mass, embellished with beautiful hymns by the community choir, drew to a close, Mgr. Mazzocato, who sponsored this celebration, referring to the biography of Fr. Bernardo by Fr. Lorenzo Gaiga La Sfida di un Uomo in Ginocchio (The Challenge of a man on his knees), took his cue from the pastoral biennium being celebrated by Treviso diocese with the theme: “Worshippers and Missionaries” and the prayer “Make us missionaries on our knees”. All of us are called to be worshippers, to find Jesus and, just like Fr. Bernardo, the courage to become missionaries.
On behalf of the Comboni Missionaries, Fr. Ballan thanked the bishop, the parish priest and all those attending, for their sincere participation “which we hope will be a prelude to more solemn celebrations in the near future, as all of us desire”.
A souvenir picture of Fr. Bernardo commemorating the 25th anniversary of his death was distributed at the close of the ceremony. This was followed by a social gathering with the bishop and priests, many of whom had known Fr. Bernardo personally or had read his biography, held in the nearby hall dedicated to the memory of Fr. Bernardo.
The people continued the celebration in a large tent with an exposition on the life of the Servant of God. His nephews were also present and among them was Tonino, son of his brother Antonio, who helped Fr. Bernardo to build the parish house at Arivu, in the diocese of Arua, Uganda.
All those present for this memorable and well-attended celebration returned to their homes convinced more than ever that, as far as they were concerned, Fr. Bernardo was a saint.
Sudan: The census
An important stage in the peace process between the government of Sudan and the SPLA should be the census which ought to facilitate a clear view of the situation of the country: number of inhabitants, where they are living, their ethnic, tribal and religious categories, and other details.
The census process was due to begin on 15 April and last for two weeks. However, right on the eve of the start of the census something extraordinary happened: the government of South Sudan announced publicly through its president Salva Kiir that the census was being postponed on the grounds that conditions were not favourable and also because some questions on the forms, which the South believed essential, and which had been agreed with the central authorities, had been ignored. Among the complaints: the fact that many refugees from the South who had taken refuge in the North or abroad had not had the possibility of returning to their native areas; the lack of security in some areas due to the presence of militias and armed groups; insufficient vehicles and funds supplied for the census. There was also the problem of the demarcation between South and North. Among the questions which had been asked for on the forms were those regarding religion and tribe. These were held to be important since, for example, there is the tendency in the North to say that Sudan is an Arab and Moslem country and that, in the South, Christians are only a minority. Tribal origin is also important when deciding which language to use in schools, etc.
In conclusion, a compromise was agreed: the census would be moved back from 15 to 22 April, the questions on religion and tribe would be inserted, internal refugees would vote where they were living but would declare their religion and tribe. As regards questions such as the demarcation of the border, the government agreed to accelerate the process.
The census is an important stage at this time that precedes the general elections planned for next year and before the referendum, which must decide once and for all if the South is to remain united with the North or go its own way. The free and democratic elections must be held during 2009 and the referendum in 2011.
During the week, 10 to 17 April, I was in Raga and saw for myself how the census was properly prepared, at least in that zone. There was a nine-day workshop for the 79 persons responsible for registration in the various areas. At the end of the workshop, each one was given the necessary material and went to his respective area, some by bicycle others by motorcycle or hitchhiking. They were told to approach local authorities for board and lodging. Their wages were to be paid once the job was done.
The first thing the census people had to do was to count the houses. So they went from door to door to fill in the forms. I spoke with several of them and I had the impression they knew exactly what they had to do.
However, here too, one could see how real the questions raised by Salva Kiir were. Raga is part of Western Bahr el Ghazal and shares a border with Darfur. Some areas (Kafia Kingi, for example), while remaining part of Bahr el Ghazal and so of South Sudan, for reasons of convenience had been left by the British, ever since colonial times, under the administrative authority of Darfur. These areas are now “contested areas”, where the census was not due to take place. Furthermore, in many areas of Darfur the census is not possible due to the ongoing conflict.
The intervention of Salva Kiir raised all these questions. The compromise reached will help to solve some of them while others need more time. The important thing is that both the population and the authorities have become aware that it is unacceptable to take decisions over the heads of the people concerned, without allowing them to express their views.
It is to be hoped that the census will pass off peacefully, that the results will not be tampered with and that the information given may promote a better distribution of services.
Of course, it is hoped that, in those places where conditions render it impossible to carry out the census, the national and international authorities work with greater conviction to bring about such conditions.
Our province has been privileged to enjoy the experience of the ordination to the priesthood of Fr. David Octavio Aguilar Guzmán, originally from Guadalajara, Jal.
The ceremony took place in the parish of St. Alphonsus Marie de Liguori at noon on 5 April 2008, by the laying on of hands of Mgr. Marcelino Hernández Rodríguez who came from Mexico City for this occasion at the invitation of Fr. David Octavio himself. It must be mentioned that it was Mgr. Marcelino who urged Fr. David to follow his missionary vocation at the time when he was his parish priest and the young man was beginning his journey of consecration to God.
In view of such an event, the Christian community experienced a time of thorough preparation under the guidance of the Comboni Missionaries and Comboni Sisters who did a whole week of mission promotion in the week preceding the celebration. Among those present, besides friends and benefactors, there was a good group of Comboni Missionaries, priests and Brothers, who welcomed with joy the gift of a new priest to the Church and the Institute, consecrated to the mission.
Addressing the congregation during the homily, Mgr. Marcelino stressed that all the Church is celebrating this important event. Echoing the document of Aparecida, he affirmed that “We cannot fail to understand that which God communicates to us: he wants us to be missionaries in his Kingdom”. He then spoke of his experience during a brief visit to Kenya, explaining the value of the task which the missionaries carry out to bring the Word of God to all peoples.
In conclusion, Mgr. Marcelino spoke of the missionary vocation of the laity, outlining their role in the evangelizing work of the Church and especially in the vocation ad gentes.
At the end of the Mass, the Provincial thanked all who had helped to organize and carry out the celebration. He emphasised that the Church in Mexico continues to send out missionaries as shown by the presence of Fr. Rubén Bojórquez Sandoval, recently ordained to the priesthood at Los Mochis Sinaloa and who will return as soon as possible to his mission in Malawi, and also Fr. Rafael Rico Hernández who is returning to his mission in Kenya.
Silver Jubilee of religious Profession
On 6 March 2008, Bro. Amancio Galerón González, originally from Yudego, Burgos, Spain, celebrated with great joy his twenty five years of consecrated life.
Accompanied by a good number of Comboni Missionary (priests, Brothers and Sisters), Bro. Amancio thanked God for the gift of consecrated life. Fr. Fernando González Galarza, vice provincial superior, while presiding at the Eucharist, spoke during his homily of the importance of the Brothers’ vocation in the Comboni mission and recounted some details about Bro. Amancio, going back to his first period of missionary work in this province. After the Mass there was a nice supper accompanied by traditional Mexican music.
On the following Sunday, the celebrations continued with a special celebration involving the people who usually attend Sunday Mass in the seminary chapel. A hundred people gathered in the chapel to celebrate the great deeds the Lord had done in the life of Bro. Amancio. During the Mass, presided by Fr. Héctor Manuel Peña Sánchez and concelebrated by several Comboni priests, Bro. Amancio shared with those present the testimony of his twenty five years of consecrated life. Everyone listened attentively as he told how the Lord worked through him during all these years to reach the hearts of so many people and bring them the message of Christ. Before the final blessing, Fr. Héctor Peña read the letter of the General Superior, Fr. Teresino Serra, in which he congratulated Bro. Amancio for his generous self-giving to God, exhorting him to spare no effort in continuing to offer himself for the good of the mission.
The feast was concluded with a peaceful time together, during which the food brought by the people attending was served to the accompaniment of songs.
Fr. Lorenzo Bergantin honoured
On 21 March, the whole world celebrated the World Day against Racial Discrimination. The day was chosen by the United Nations in memory of the massacre perpetrated when police opened fire on peaceful demonstrators as they marched in protest against the apartheid laws in South Africa in 1960.
Each year, in Peru, an Anti-racism Week is celebrated with the aim of making society more aware of the need to eradicate every form of racial discrimination and intolerance. At the same time, the development of ideas regarding one’s identity is promoted in order to value all its aspects as compared with others who are different.
In the context of the struggle against racism and the affirmation of one’s own identity, the Associación Pro Derechos Humanos (Association for Human Rights), APRODEH, and the Centro de Desarrollo Étnico, (Centre for Ethnic Development), CEDE, as well as their work of organizing many events which place before the public the most varied aspects of this problem, also indicate the persons who have distinguished themselves in their support for the struggle against discrimination.
On the evening of 28 March, in the José Faustino Sánchez Carrión auditorium of the Theatre of Congress in Lima, representatives of both organizations singled out the Mayor of the commune of Magdalena, Francis Allison, for the municipal regulations which prohibit and punish anyone who openly discriminates against other citizens. Immediately afterwards it was the turn of Fr. Lorenzo Bergantin, a Comboni Missionary and parish priest of the church of El Carmen in Chincha, south of Lima, to be acclaimed for the great support he gave in recent years to the Afro-Peruvian community.
Most people had come to know of Fr. Lorenzo following the earthquake which devastated the country. He was, in fact, the first to organise and promote the so-called soup kitchens to feed the people affected and succeeded in channelling the aid received from various sources to the benefit of the population. Fr. Lorenzo was also outstanding in promoting the values of the Afro culture by means of a museum and documentation centre on the origins of the population. The religious celebrations in the parish of Carmen are characterised by their link with traditional music and scenes typical of the inhabitants of Chincha.
The Comboni Missionaries in Peru extend their support and their congratulations to Fr. Lorenzo for this recognition which brings honour to his missionary work.
Comboni Missionary Afternoon
“A sublime undertaking”, Fr. Mario Mazzoni said in describing the missionary activity of the Church and the joint efforts of a group of friends who, during the past eleven years, succeeded in organizing a support group for the Peruvian missionaries working in Africa.
Love for the mission is contagious, Fr. Mario said, and the outcome is seen by the transformation of what began as a “missionary tea” into a “missionary afternoon”. In fact, on Wednesday 9 April 2008, about 500 people gathered in the theatre of the “Regina Pacis” college of Monterrico, Surco, property of the religious Sisters of the congregation of “The Slaves of the Most Holy Eucharist and the Mother of God”.
With time, this missionary initiative grew to the benefit of the Peruvian Comboni Missionaries working in Africa. Speaking on behalf of them all, Bro. Hernán Romero Arias, from Jauja (Huancayo), thanked all those present for their support for the missionary cause. Bro. Hernan is a doctor by profession and has worked for twenty years in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Meeting of Young Comboni Missionaries
Also this year, we young Comboni Missionaries from Italy and Poland gathered to share and grow together. Some of us, incidentally, were in formation together while others were engaged in the same mission service in different latitudes. This time of formation and fraternity was organised by the community of Cracow, where we met from Monday 31 March to Friday 13 April 2008.
Fr. Fausto Beretta assisted us in our reflections towards a deeper encounter with Christ, Comboni and the Cross. One reflection concerned our communities which need to become more human and welcoming, allowing room also for an affective dimension and, where possible, a type of prayer consisting not only of formulas but also of a more lively participation.
We spent a day visiting Auschwitz and Czestochowa. It was a rainy day and suited the visit to the place of Auschwitz, the scene of the suffering and systematic death of so many people, a well known part of European history about which books have been written and films made but which, to the visitor on the spot, assumes a heart-wrenching significance, giving rise to questions as to the nature of man both murderer and victim. We prayed together there, remembering the victims and also the beautiful testimonies of humanity and faith, such as that of Fr. Maximillian Kolbe who died in this concentration camp. Then we went to the “luminous hill” of Jasna Gora, better known as Czestochowa. The shrine is like a small fortress on the hill, a place of pilgrimage and prayer which was not long ago the bulwark of Polish resistance to threats to their faith and identity.
The traditional annual feast for parents and relatives of the Comboni Missionaries took place in the seminary of Maia, Porto, on 30 March 2008, together with the new provincial Fr. Alberto Oliveira Silva.
The meeting brought together around 150 relatives of the Comboni Missionaries from various parts of the country. Fr. António Carlos Simões Ferreira, a Comboni Missionary recently returned from Malawi to work in the Portuguese province, shared his missionary experience in Malawi with those present by means of a power point presentation.
This was followed by Mass at which Fr. Alberto presided and at which the golden jubilee of priesthood of Fr. Rogério Artur de Sousa and also the golden jubilee of Maia Seminary were commemorated.
In the afternoon, each family introduced themselves. The Provincial
spoke about the life of the Province and then the superior of Maia community, Fr. Francisco José de Sousa Machado, presented the plans for the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the seminary. To conclude, each family was given a small souvenir which included an illustrated book on Comboni.
Debate on Mission Promotion
One of the central questions discussed by the Comboni Missionaries in the course of the meeting held at Maia Seminary, Porto, from 31 March to 3 April 2008, was how to respond to the needs of the Church in Portugal.
Nineteen Comboni Missionaries and one Comboni Sister took part in the meeting which aimed at indicating new ways of missionary animation and evangelization.
During the first day’s work, each community presented a report on its activities while on the second day Fr. Filipe Miguel Oliveira Resende presented his views on “The Church in Portugal: shadows, light and paths to follow”. In order to meet the pastoral priorities of the Church in Portugal – the formation of Christians, youth ministry and the specific ministry of the priest – a type of mission promotion and evangelization consisting in Biblical, sacramental and missionary formation to be given to the Christians of the parishes over a period of three weeks.
Group work produced other suggestions such as the need to renew the Comboni community life, to fix a day each week in the communities for receiving foreigners, to give priority to the parishes which ask for our help, to concentrate on the catechumenate and offer the youth a programme of growth in the faith.
The morning of the third day was dedicated to the reflection done by the Commission for the Laity which suggested the creation of a Comboni Lay Council to coordinate the various groups of lay people associated with the Comboni Missionaries.
An Important First: The National Forum for Youth
The National Forum for Young Catholics was held at Sarh from 9 to 14 April 2008, under the patronage of the Episcopal Conference of Tchad and the National Commission for youth Ministry. The theme of the forum was “You will be my witnesses”. Nine hundred and eighty-four boys and girls from all the dioceses (N’djaména, Moundou, Pala, Lai, Goré, Doba and Sarh) and from the Apostolic Prefecture of Mongo attended as well as eighty-five priests and male and female religious took part, in an atmosphere of joy and happiness for meeting together as young brothers and sisters of the same country, sharing the same faith and the same Church.
One must remember that this is the first time in Tchad, in the history of the Church, the Family of God, that such a rally, such a meeting of the youth as this has been held in such a joyful atmosphere. Next year, 2009, Tchad will celebrate the eightieth anniversary of the arrival of the Good News in this land and the youth had never before had the opportunity to express their joy at being young catholic Christians.
The programme included the following: morning prayer and Mass in the four places prepared for welcoming, adoration, confessions in the four parishes of the city, interventions by the Bishops followed by debates and also meetings with the youth of other religious denominations and with the civil associations of Sarh.
The local ordinary, Bishop Edmond Jitangaar of Sarh, on the morning of 12 April spoke of “The involvement of the youth in society as witnesses of Christ”. His talk pleased the youth very much. They listened with attention and admiration, also because Mgr. Jitangaar made his words more understandable through the use of the language of modern youth.
The hymn, which the youth sang every day at the close of every session, was inspired by the prayer of the Forum which expresses both the desire (“We want to work for the unity of our country torn by war, tribalism, divisions and hatred) and also the commitment of the youth (“Involved in the development of our country, involved in politics in a responsible and honest way”).
An important stage in the Forum was the commitments undertaken by the youth, commitments to be carried out and lived from the moment of their return to their respective dioceses.
Handing over of Anaka parish and farewell to Fr. Italo Piffer
On 13 January 2008, in the presence of Fr. Matthew Ojara, the Vicar General of Gulu Archdiocese, and of Fr. Giuseppe Filippi, the provincial superior of the Comboni missionaries, the parish of Anaka was handed over to the diocese. The newly appointed parish priest, Fr. Martin Agwe, was received with joy by the Christians.
The following Sunday, 20 January 2008, the parish community and the archbishop John Baptist Odama bade farewell to Fr. Italo Piffer after his 18 years as parish priest of Anaka. The large crowd of faithful expressed their gratitude through speeches of acknowledgment and symbolic gifts for his dedication and courage to share hardship, insecurity and troubles with his Christian community. For them he has been a point of reference, a sign of hope and a witness of love. The Provincial Council is grateful to him for the generous service offered to Anaka and wishes him a well-deserved and long rest.
IN PACE CHRISTI
Fr. Febo Gabriele Chiodi (05.03.1914 – 16.03.2008)
Fr. Raymond Pax (23.06.1938 – 31.03.2008)
Let us pray for our beloved dead
THE BROTHERS: Nathanael, of the Sc. Boadi John Bliss Anthony Kudjo (T); Bruno, of Fr. Lorenzo Tiepolo (I); Carlo, of Fr. Alfonso Rossi (I).
THE SISTERS: Vittorina, of Fr. Tonino Falaguasta (CN); Maria, of Fr. Johann Maneschg (RSA); Rosa, of Fr. José Oscar Flores López (C).
THE COMBONI MISSIONARY SISTERS: Sr. Gioviniana Piva, Sr. M. Berica Berdin, Sr. Ginevra Cipriani.
THE SECULAR COMBONI MISSIONARY: Domenica Scarabaggio.